Should Student Loans Pay Off or Invest? – Forbes Advisor



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If you were in college, you probably have significant student loan debt. Student loans can be a huge burden, and meeting monthly payments can make it difficult to achieve other financial goals. In fact, research MIT AgeLab found that 84% of American adults said student loans negatively impact the amount they can save for retirement.

If you are dealing with student loan debt, deciding whether to pay off the loan or invest in your future in the first place can be difficult. To help you make the right choice, we’ve figured out when you should pay off your student loans or invest your money.

Do I have to repay my student loan or invest? 5 factors to consider

When it comes to personal finance, experts generally recommend focusing on two things: paying off debt and saving for retirement. But it can be tricky to postpone retirement if you’re saddled student loan duty. When deciding where to invest, consider the following five factors:

1. Interest rates on student loan

The interest rate on your loans should help you make a decision. Your interest rate affects your monthly payments and the total repayment cost. If you have high interest rates, interest can build up quickly, increasing your loan balance. In this case, it would be wiser to pay off the debt in order to lower your interest expenses, and this will free up more money in the future.

2. Loan type

There are two main types of student loans: federal and private… Federal student loans are issued by the government and generally have lower interest rates than private loans. They also have more benefits and options for borrowers, including alternative payment plans and loan forgiveness programs.

Private student loans are more risky forms of debt. They offer fewer protections and repayment options than federal loans and often have higher interest rates.

3. Contributions from employers

If you are weighing the pros and cons of investing versus paying off debt, reconsider your employment benefit package. If your employer provides its employees with a retirement plan, such as a 401 (k), and provides corresponding contributionsThis is an important benefit that you may not be using right now.

4. Financial goals

Think about your goals. Whether you are looking to become a homeowner or start a business, you may find that your loans are preventing you from achieving these goals. On the contrary, you can focus on investing if your goal is early retirement.

5. Age

Your age can affect what you should prioritize. If you just graduated from college and are in your 20s, you will have more time to save for retirement. But if you’re in your 40s or 50s, you won’t have a lot of time to waste if you don’t have enough money currently accumulated in your retirement fund.

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When to give preference to paying a student loan

Often people have a question: “Should I pay off student loans or invest?” While there is no single right answer for everyone, here are three scenarios in which it makes sense to prioritize loan repayments before investing.

1. Your loans have high interest rates

Student loans can carry very high interest rates. According to Institute for College Access and Successprivate student loan rates in 2019 reached 14.24%. Although interest rates on federal loans are generally lower than on private loans, they can still be high. For example, Direct PLUS loans issued to parents or graduate students had an interest rate of 6.3% for the academic year beginning July 1, 2021.

If you have high interest debt, the amount you pay in interest may be higher than the amount you earn from stock market returns, so it might make sense to go about your loans first.

To find out how interest rates affect payouts and the total repayment amount, use the Forbes Advisor. student loan repayment calculator

2. Your loans are volatile

Federal student loans always have a fixed interest rate, so your rate stays the same throughout the maturity. This is not always the case for private student loans. Some private loans have variable interest rates this may change over time.

While variable rates may be low in the beginning, they can rise significantly. If you have a floating rate loan, paying it off as quickly as possible can save you the trouble of dealing with market fluctuations later on and save you money.

3. Your loans are stressful for you

Personal finance isn’t always about numbers; it can also be very emotional. If your student loans are causing you significant stress or holding you back from life goals such as owning a home, it may be worth paying off your loans first to gain some peace of mind.

When to give preference to investing

If you are unsure whether to invest in or repay student loans, here are a few situations in which it might be wise to prioritize your investments.

1. Your employer offers appropriate contributions

If your employer provides a retirement plan with adequate contributions, this will be a significant advantage.

According to Vanguard 2021 How America Saves According to the study, 59% of employers offered matching contributions in 2019. Unfortunately, almost 40% of employees miss the opportunity to match by not participating. And not enough contributions to play a full match means you are losing money that is part of your compensation package.

In the most typical matching scheme, the employer would make $ 0.50 per dollar as the first 6% of the employee’s salary. For example, if you earn $ 50,000 a year and contribute $ 3,000 to 401 (k) – 6% of your salary – your employer will contribute $ 1,500 to your pension.

If your employer offers matching contributions, you should bet on using full company compliance rather than paying off debt.

2. Lagging behind on retirement savings

About a quarter of non-retirement adults have no pension savings at all, according to data The federal reserve… If you haven’t started saving for retirement yet, it probably makes sense to delay paying off your loans early so you can focus on building your retirement fund.

The sooner you start saving for retirement, the less of your own money you will have to spend on living after retirement. Market yield and compound interest over time are powerful tools that can help you build your nest.

If you wait for a later period in life – for example, when your loans are paid off – you will have to work much harder and save much more to achieve your retirement goals.

3. Your loans have low interest rates.

Depending on the type of loans you have and when you took them out, they may have low interest rates. For example, direct subsidized loans for undergraduate students issued between July 1, 2020 and June 30, 2021 had an interest rate of 2.75%.

Compare the interest rate on the loan with the expected return on investment. Conservative estimates suggest that the annual rate of return you can expect from retirement investments is typically between 4% and 7%. If the expected return exceeds the interest rate on the loan, prioritizing the investment may be the best choice.

Hybrid Approach: Pay off student loans and invest at the same time

While many people choose one goal or another, it doesn’t have to be all or nothing. You can use a hybrid approach and work towards both goals.

Think about how much extra money you have each month to invest in your financial goals. Divide this amount in half and contribute to the achievement of each goal. For example, if you have $ 200 left after all bills have been paid, invest $ 100 for retirement and use the remaining $ 100 for additional student loan payments.

Although you will progress more slowly than if you focused on only one goal at a time, you will still make progress and improve your overall financial picture.

Choosing a debt repayment strategy

If you are looking to start reducing your student loan balance, you can speed up your repayment by using repayment strategies such as debt avalanche or debt snowball methods

Depending on your mindset, focusing on debt with the lowest interest rate may be the best option. Or, you can stay more motivated if you pay off the debt with the lowest balance first. No matter which repayment strategy you use, you will pay off your loans faster and reach your goals faster.


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